neuroprotection by electrophillic phase II inducers.
Satoh T, Okamoto SI, Cui J, Watanabe Y, Furuta K, Suzuki M, Tohyama K, Lipton SA.
Center for Neuroscience and Aging, The Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037.
Electrophilic neurite outgrowth-promoting prostaglandin (NEPP) compounds protect neurons from oxidative insults. At least part of the neuroprotective action of NEPPs lies in induction of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1), which, along with other phase II enzymes, serve as a defense system against oxidative stress. Here, we found that, by using fluorescent tags and immunoprecipitation assays, NEPPs are taken up preferentially into neurons and bind in a thiol-dependent manner to Keap1, a negative regulator of the transcription factor Nrf2. By bi! nding to Keap1, NEPPs prevent Keap1-mediated inactivation of Nrf2 and, thus, enhance Nrf2 translocation into the nucleus of cultured neuronal cells. In turn, Nrf2 binds to antioxidant/electrophile-responsive elements of the HO-1 promoter to induce HO-1 expression. Consistent with this notion, NEPP induction of an HO-1 reporter construct is prevented if the antioxidant-responsive elements are mutated. We show that NEPPs are neuroprotective both in vitro from glutamate-related excitotoxicity and in vivo in a model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (stroke). Our results suggest that NEPPs prevent excitotoxicity by activating the Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. Because NEPPs accumulate preferentially in neurons, they may provide a category of neuroprotective compounds, distinct from other electrophilic compounds such as tert-butylhydroquinone, which activates the antioxidant-responsive element in astrocytes. NEPPs thus represent a therapeutic approach for stroke an! d neurodegenerative disorders.
PMID: 16407140 [PubMed - in process ]
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